Scriptures are cited from the King James (Authorized) Version, unless stated otherwise.
MANY Christians deny the existence of Satan as a personal being, believing him to be the evil
principle; but reason suggests, and the Bible teaches, that righteous acts and the Universe must
have been originated by some first cause, which is God. Likewise, sinful acts must have been
originated by some first cause, and this first cause of sinful acts must have been sinful; and since
sinful acts also imply purpose, their originator must have been a being possessing mind and will,
and therefore a person, who the Bible informs us is Satan. Experience also suggests that there are
at least a number of invisible evil spirit beings, for in no other way can we explain the sudden
injection of unfamiliar and repulsive evil thoughts into the minds of human beings – thoughts
not suggested by the circumstances and experiences of those receiving those thoughts.
Satan a Personal Being
Satan’s personality is found in many Bible passages:
the high priest, Joshua (Zechariah 3: 1, 2).
his diminishing cause (Matthew 12: 24-26).
and murdered the human family when he introduced sin into the world (John 8: 44)
(Genesis 3: 1-7). If Satan were the evil principle, how could he have ever been in the Truth?
(1 Corinthians 5: 5). If Satan were the evil principle and not an evil person who works through
evil principles, it would have been contrary to St. Paul’s purpose.
devices implies thought and purpose (2 Corinthians 2: 11).
thought and reason (2 Corinthians 11: 14).
thinks and feels (James 2: 19).
(1 Peter 5: 8, 9).
an object of worship in Israel (Jude 9).
Lucifer Created Perfect
Originally Satan (1 Chronicles 21: 1) (Job 1: 6) (John 13: 27) (Acts 5: 3) (Acts 26: 18)
(Romans 16: 20) was good. Satan, which name in Hebrew, like its Greek counterpart – diabolos,
whence comes our English word devil – means adversary, opponent. But his original name was
Lucifer – light-bearer (Isaiah 14: 12), until he sinned and led the race into sin. In nature and rank
he was a cherub, one of the highest of all angels (Ezekiel 28: 14, 16). Ezekiel 28: 12-19
addresses him as the king of Tyre. Tyre symbolizes this present evil world, so this shows Satan
to be the ruler of this present evil world. These verses give us a fairly detailed description of
Lucifer, before and after he sinned, and his final end – annihilation.
In both literal and symbolic language, verses 12-15 sets forth his physical, mental, moral and
religious perfection. The expression, “Thou sealest up the sum,” refers to the fullness of his
perfection – intellectually (full of wisdom), physically, morally and religiously. The word beauty
refers to his physical, moral and religious qualities. He even maintained his perfection for a
while after being made guardian angel to Adam and Eve in Eden (verses 13, 14). His pre-fallen
moral and religious qualities are particularly brought to our attention by the figure of his being
covered with precious stones (verse 13), for precious stones symbolize the moral and religious
perfections of the glorified Church (Revelation 21: 11-21). Verse 14 first describes his work in
Eden as guardian of Adam and Eve, and later describes his position and work among the
heavenly hosts. Verse 15 shows that he had been perfectly righteous and good from the time of
his creation, for probably millions of years, until he fell into sin in Eden. Verses 16-18 describe
his corrupting himself, while verse 19 speaks of his final influence and annihilation in the Little
Season following the Millennial Age.
Other Descriptive Names
Besides being called Lucifer, Satan, and the covering (protecting) cherub, he is also called by
other names. The following refer to him from the standpoint of his qualities and activities after
his plaguesomeness through errors [flies] on militarism, leading to war and destruction
(Matthew 12: 24) (Mark 3: 22) (Luke 11: 15).
general and the good in particular – (Matthew 4: 1) (Luke 4: 2, 6) (Revelation 20: 2).
John 8: 44).
(Revelation 20: 2) (2 Corinthians 11: 3).
affairs – (John 12: 31) (John 14: 30) (John 16: 11).
invisible spirits organized as a kingdom over humanity – Ephesians 2: 2).
disobedient as his servants and tools – Ephesians 2: 2).
(1 Thessalonians 3: 5).
2 Corinthians 4: 4).
God created Lucifer good. He was not made so that he had to sin, for God gave him a disposition
favorable to righteousness and averse to sin. So, how could he have sinned if there was no sin in
the world and no sinful inclinations in his make-up? The possibility of his sinning is that he was
endowed with liberty of choice. As one of the highest of the angels (Isaiah 14: 12), some of the
other angels were his subordinates. He received honor and obedience from them because of his
position in relation to them. Although it was proper for him to desire and receive such honor and
obedience, apparently Lucifer permitted his mind to dwell too much on the desirability of
receiving such honor and obedience. He therefore failed to keep such desires in proper
subjection to higher sentiments, such as the desire to please God above all, and the desire not to
receive honor and obedience from others unless it was in harmony with God’s arrangements. The
more he kept the desirability of receiving honor and obedience from others in his heart, the
stronger this desire became, and the more it reached out for exercise toward some whom God
had not put into his charge.
This craving for more honor and power than God had arranged for him to have gradually grew:
arranged relations to him. As he observed mankind, his growing ambition began to see a
possible dominion from which he could gain further honor and obedience. As “the covering
[protecting] cherub” he had been given a limited guardianship over the human family in
Eden (Ezekiel 28: 13-15), but the limits of this guardianship were too confining for his
growing ambition. To gratify his ambition, he led perfect mankind into sin, and thus openly
rebelled against God. The Prophet describes his gradual fall into sin: “Thou hast said in
thine heart [desires], I will ascend,” etc. (Isaiah 14: 12-14). Unholy ambition was his
Satan may not have intended to go as far as he has gone, for he is now the implacable enemy of
God and man. A certain proverb says that whoever says A must in time say B, or whoever
concedes an inch to wrong for advantage will eventually have to concede a mile in wrong to
secure his ends. Satan has likely now proceeded to Y, and at the end of the Millennial Age will
go to Z, the full limit of evil, at which time he will be destroyed (Hebrews 2: 14). Though he has
attained his ambition for rulership over the human family and princeship over the fallen angels,
what a terrible cost to himself and to all his subjects! He has degraded his once holy character
and fellowship with God and all in harmony with Him; has involved many angels in sin with its
evil results; and has brought sin and ruin upon the human family. He stands unique as the most
outstanding example of depraved character in the universe – practically the synonym of sin
itself. His is the chief example of “vaunting ambition overleaping itself” – may we avoid
imitating him at any cost!
Various features of Satan’s ambition are described in Isaiah 14: 13, 14. We will quote each part,
followed by some bracketed comments:
(stars – Job 38: 7)].
become the spiritual, invisible (“in the sides of the north”) ruler of the human family (“the
supreme, and as God’s rival, I will be His equal].
Satan has founded an empire having two phases: (1) an invisible phase, consisting of the fallen
angels under his leadership, as the controlling phase, and (2) a visible and subordinate phase,
consisting of three departments: oppressive governments, predatory aristocracies and false
religions, as the visible representatives of the invisible and ruling fallen angels. The earthly
phase consists of three classes of representatives corresponding to its three departments
respectively: rulers, aristocrats, and clergy, who are the officials in these three departments.
The foundation principle for Satan’s empire is the “Divine Right,” which comes in three forms:
The Divine Right of rulers, the Divine Right of aristocrats and the Divine Right of the clergy.
The purpose for these three forms of his doctrine was to make the masses blindly subject to the
classes, claiming that it had the Divine approval. In this way Satan could keep the masses in
subjection to his representatives, and therefore to him. By the Divine Right of kings, Satan
caused his mouthpieces, especially the clergy, to teach: (1) The kings are God’s direct appointees
and representatives; (2) they do exactly what God wants them to do; (3) God sanctions all their
acts (which would mean that He sanctioned all the acts of Hitler and Stalin!); and (4) the people
are duty bound to obey without question everything their rulers require!
By the Divine Right of the aristocracy, he caused the following things to be taught, especially
through the clergy: (1) It is God’s will that practically the whole earth and its riches be owned
and administered by the aristocrats; (2) these act as God’s stewards in dispensing earth’s
bounties to the bulk of mankind; (3) God sanctions their administration of things; and (4) the
masses should be content with their lot and with what is being dispensed to them.
By the Divine Right of the clergy, Satan caused the following thoughts to be taught, especially
by the clergy: (1) God speaks to the people through the clergy; (2) they are His mouthpieces
giving forth the Truth; (3) He sanctions their teachings; and (4) the people should believe and
practice the clergy’s teachings with blank, unquestioning minds.
The Divine Right as Satan caused it to be taught is false, but since the flood, it has been
calculated to keep the race subject to Satan; and he was largely successful in keeping the masses
in subjection by the Divine Right doctrine until World War I, when the war debates largely set it
In attempting to keep his empire strong, Satan has always sought to keep some law and order in
place, knowing that anarchy would ruin his cause. He arranged civil laws in general to guard the
rights of the leaders in state, religion and aristocracy, which we now call capital, thereby
preventing anarchy. He has only tolerated the setting aside of civil law when he saw that it would
be beneficial to his empire to have certain governments, religions and aristocracies overthrown.
He has also introduced some laws for the rights of the common people, though they have always
been made to serve the interests of the statesmen, clergy and aristocrats first.
Though Satan deceived the people greatly by the Divine Right of rulers, clergy and aristocrats,
he knew these alone could not continue his rulership. He therefore found it necessary to advance
three other doctrines to support the doctrine of the Doctrine Right:
They are stated in Genesis 3: 4, 5:
right on, even though seemingly dead].
Satan’s design in using these three errors as the supporting doctrines of his empire was to
deceive the race into believing that certain errors were true and certain truths were false, and that
certain wrongs were right and certain rights were wrong. With that accomplished, he would
promise rewards in the next life to those who would, under his deception, accept his errors and
practice his wrongs, and threaten with eternal torment those who refused to do so. He would also
threaten torments in the next life to those who would accept God’s truths (misrepresented as
errors by Satan) as true, and practice certain of His commands (misrepresented by Satan as
wrong) as right; as he would also promise eternal bliss to those who would not do so. Through
deception, he would enslave the race to his will and prevent their doing God’s will, and he
succeeded with the majority of the human family (2 Corinthians 4: 4) (2 Corinthians 11: 3, 14, 15) (2 Thessalonians 2: 9) (2 Timothy 2: 26).
Satan’s empire has been an evil one as all history attests, for it has been marked by every evil
word and work. The majority of its rulers, aristocrats and clergy have been corrupt. The history
of “this present evil world” (Galatians 1: 4) is replete with war, revolution, rapine, murder,
destruction, lust, cruelty, conquest, oppression, degradation, unhappiness, misfortune, death and
persecution, especially of God’s people. Very little space is given to good, noble and elevating
When we look upon the physical, mental, moral and religious perfection in which God created
the human family in Eden, and then by contrast consider the physical, mental, moral and
religious wrecks which Satan has made of so many of our race, we have striking evidences of his
wicked character as a person and as a ruler. We see the failure of his empire to bless its subjects,
and the crying need of displacing him and his empire by The Christ as the Ruler and the
Kingdom of God as the empire, in order to rescue the human race from utter ruin and
destruction; and to return it to the original perfection and bliss of God’s image and likeness. God
first hinted at such an outcome in Genesis 3: 15; He renewed and expanded upon it to Abraham;
by the types and shadows of the Law He emphasized it; in the poetry of the Prophets and
Psalmists He reiterated it; through Jesus and the Apostles He expounded it; He encourages His
faithful people to pray for it; and by the signs of the times He indicates that it is at hand. It is the
desire of, and will be the cure for all the nations (Haggai 2: 7).
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